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SLICA DATA
SLICA RELEASE

Survey of Living Conditions in the Arctic:
Results for Canada, Alaska, Greenland, and Chukotka

 

Introduction

The above pie chart shows the adult Native population represented by SLICA in Greenland, Canada, Chukotka, and Alaska.

The purpose of the teleconference is to share results before they are discussed publicly. We want to be sure that the results mean what we think they mean. Sometimes people can interpret a question differently than we intended. You can help us to identify such questions.

The results we will review in the teleconference are representative of results that the international team will present at a conference on Quality of Life Studies this July. We have been analyzing the data using five international themes first identified by Ed Ward and Charles Dorais. These themes are:

Theme One: The importance of social relationships and the standard of living to settlement patterns

Theme Two: The importance of a mixed cash- and harvest/ herding- based economy to living in the Arctic

Theme Three: Relationships between social problems and other dimensions of living conditions

Theme Four: The influence of educators and missionaries (we have postponed analysis of Theme Four, because the open-ended questions relevant to this theme have not been coded for Greenland and Chukotka.)

Theme Five: The influence of policies on living conditions

Ed Ward, Marg and Jack Kruse, Birger and Mari Poppel, and Virgene Hanna will be making presentations in South Africa. Stephanie Martin and Larissa Abryutina will also each have a presentation that another team member will deliver. There may also be a presentation sent by Gerard Duhaime. Each presentation has to do with one of the five themes.

The international team hopes that the presentations in South Africa will become the basis of several academic articles. Granting agencies such as the National Science Foundation evaluate the success of a grant by the academic publications it produces. Future grants depend on the record of academic publications from previous grants. These academic publications will focus on relationships for the combined Native populations of the regions sampled in Canada, Greenland, Chukotka, and Alaska.

The most beneficial product for Inuit Circumpolar Conference, the Arctic Council, and regional Native organizations will be a comprehensive set of tabulations of results by region/country. Also useful will be selected tabulations by gender, age, and place size. The real value of this publication will be the results themselves, not an interpretation of results. Most interpretations will require either additional survey results over time (measuring change), or other types of information (comparisons of living conditions in the context of different policies for example). For this reason, we intend to keep the comprehensive publication focused on results.

The tables below are representative of the results we have been using in the analysis of the above themes. Most results are shown by country. This is because you are most familiar with your country. Having the comparisons with other countries may help you interpret the results you see for your country.

There are probably too many tables for us to review them all in an hour-and-a-half. Please feel free to skip around and select a table that you would like to review. You can also ask if there is a table having to do with a topic you are interested in, and we may be able to find it for you.

 

Part One: Subsistence and Employment

Table 1: Percentage of Meat and Fish That is Traditional Food

          Total
  Greenland Canada Chukotka Alaska  
less than half 35 26 32 16 31
about half 30 35 38 23 31
more than half 35 39 30 61 38
  100 100 100 100 100

Table 2: Percentage of Adults Employed in Last Year

          Total
  Greenland Canada Chukotka Alaska  
not employed last 12 mo 35 43 33 42 36
employed part time at least once in year 5 10 6 11 7
employed full time at least once in year 59 48 61 47 57
  100 100 100 100 100

Table 3: Number of Subsistence Activities in Last Year (count of four activities)

          Total
  Greenland Canada Chukotka Alaska  
none 39 16 27 18 28
1 22 18 8 19 18
2 22 28 24 34 25
3-4 17 37 42 29 28
  100 100 100 100 100

Table 4: Number of Subsistence Activities in Last Year (count of 16 activities)

        Total
  Greenland Chukotka Alaska  
0 activities 22 12 9 18
1 thru 5 activities 44 24 36 38
6 thru 16 activities 34 63 55 43
  100 100 100 100

 

Table 5: Total Personal Income in US Dollars unadjusted for purchasing power

e22rr 5 category grouped values of e22 - total personal incomes in US dollars * country Country Crosstabulation

% within country Country

country Country

Total

1 Greenland

6 Chukotka

7 Alaska

e22rr 5 category grouped values of e22 - total personal incomes in US dollars

1.00 5000 or under

11%

80%

18%

24%

2.00 5000-11500

14%

14%

18%

15%

3.00 11500-22000

22%

6%

21%

19%

4.00 22000-37000

21%

0%

17%

17%

5.00 above 37000

32%

26%

25%

Total

100%

100%

100%

100%

 

 

Table 6: Total Personal Income in US Dollars adjusted for purchasing power

          Total
  Greenland Canada Chukotka Alaska  
5000 or under 14 34 18 19 20
5000-11500 20 21 30 20 20
11500-22000 22 20 21 23 20
22000-37000 23 14 18 19 20
above 37000 22 10 14 19 20
  100 100 100 100 100

 

Table 7: Satisfaction with Job

          Total
  Greenland Canada Chukotka Alaska  
not satisfied or neither 12 16 31 11 16
somewhat satisfied 54 41 48 32 46
very satisfied 33 43 21 58 38
  100 100 100 100 100

 

Table 8: Satisfaction with Amount of Fish and Game Available Locally

          Total
  Greenland Canada Chukotka Alaska  
not satisfied or neither 34 9 54 24 28
somewhat satisfied 57 31 36 36 43
very satisfied 8 60 9 41 28
  100 100 100 100 100

Table 9: Unemployment Perceived as a Problem for Natives in Community

          Total
  Greenland Canada Chukotka Alaska  
yes 84 87 100 83 88
no 16 13 0 17 12
  100 100 100 100 100

 

Table 10: Satisfaction with Combination of Production Activities

        Total
  Greenland Chukotka Alaska  
very dissatisfied 1 10 2 3
somewhat dissatisfied 3 29 3 9
neither satisfied nor dissatisfied 12 0 8 8
somewhat satisfied 54 45 35 47
very satisfied 30 16 52 33
  100 100 100 100

 

Part Two: Education and Language

Table 11: Formal Education

          Total
  Greenland Canada Chukotka Alaska  
elementary or less 40 55 25 13 36
some high school or in HS now 2 15 0 17 7
high school 10 13 32 46 19
vocational or college 48 16 44 24 38
  100 100 100 100 100

Table 12: Traditional Education

        Total
  Greenland Chukotka Alaska  
1-7 skills 34 13 18 26
8-11 skills 39 13 28 30
12-15 skills 25 12 33 23
16-20 skills 3 62 21 20
  100 100 100 100

Table 13: Native Language Ability

          Total
  Greenland Canada Chukotka Alaska  
low 0-2 1 3 16 32 12
medium 3-7 33 21 45 39 33
high 8 (understand and speak very well) 67 75 39 29 55
  100 100 100 100 100

Part Three: Health

Table 14: Reports of Symptoms of Health Problems

 
 * Country Cross tabulation
% within Country
Country
Total
 
Greenland
  Chukotka
Alaska
 
grouped values of pain, breathing, digestion,
temp, teeth, dizziness symptoms
 
None
29.6%
13.0%
27.5%
25.1%
 
1
27.4%
16.3%
32.7%
26.5%
 
2
20.6%
20.5%
22.3%
21.1%
 
3 or more
22.4%
50.2%
17.5%
27.3%
Total
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%

Table 15: Diagnosed Health Problems

 
 
Greenland
Canada
Chukotka
Alaska
Total
Emphysema or shortness of breath
19%
34%
49%
31%
29%
High blood pressure
14%
8%
29%
27%
16%
Arthritis or rheumatism
16%
8%
28%
19%
16%
Stomach problems or intestinal ulcers
13%
4%
23%
15%
12%
Heart problems
8%
5%
25%
11%
10%
Other long term health condition
9%
5%
20%
6%
9%
Chronic Bronchitis
5%
2%
18%
5%
6%
Asthma
7%
4%
4%
8%
6%
Other kidney diseases
3%
1%
19%
2%
5%
Hepatitis
2%
1%
16%
5%
4%
Diabetes
3%
2%
2%
6%
3%
Cancer
2%
1%
2%
2%
2%
Effects of a stroke
2%
1%
2%
2%
2%
Total Population
32,320
21,700
11,380
10,880
76,280

 

Table 16: Perceived Health

          Total
  Greenland Canada Chukotka Alaska  
poor 1 2 15 4 3
fair 4 9 13 19 8
good 18 33 50 31 28
very good 58 27 14 32 41
excellent 19 28 7 15 20
  100 100 100 100 100

 

Part Four: Social Problems

Table 17: Family Violence a Problem in Community

          Total
  Greenland Canada Chukotka Alaska  
yes 64 69 93 52 70
no 35 31 7 48 30
  100 100 100 100 100

Table 18: Sexual Abuse a Problem in Community

          Total
  Greenland Canada Chukotka Alaska  
yes 61 61 88 34 63
no 39 39 12 66 37
  100 100 100 100 100

Table 19: Suicide a Problem in Community

  Country       Total
  Greenland Canada Chukotka Alaska  
yes 69 70 95 60 73
no 31 30 5 40 27
  100 100 100 100 100

Table 20: Alcohol abuse a Problem in Community

          Total
  Greenland Canada Chukotka Alaska  
yes 80 78 100 84 85
no 20 22 0 16 15
  100 100 100 100 100

Table 21: Victim of Theft, Sexual Assault, Assault, or Other Offense
in Past 12 Months

        Total
  Greenland Chukotka Alaska  
not a victim 83 67 83 79
victim 17 33 17 21
  100 100 100 100

 

Table 22: Likelihood of Being Depressed (based on 7 questions)

          Total
  Greenland Canada Chukotka Alaska  
most likely depressed 14 6 29 9 12
least likely depressed 86 94 71 91 88
  100 100 100 100 100

Table 23: Thoughts of Suicide

        Total
  Greenland Chukotka Alaska  
no 82 85 86 84
yes 9 8 8 8
yes in last year 9 7 6 7
  100 100 100 100

 

Part Five: Social and Cultural Support

Table 24: Strength of Ties with Family Not Living in Same Household

          Total
  Greenland Canada Chukotka Alaska  
not strong 26 27 28 17 25
strong 49 21 48 47 41
very strong 25 53 24 36 33
  100 100 100 100 100

Table 25: Availability of Social Support (based on seven questions)

          Total
  Greenland Canada Chukotka Alaska  
1-17 (low) 23 22 52 23 27
18-22 25 27 34 29 27
23-26 23 18 10 27 20
27-28 (high) 29 33 4 21 26
  100 100 100 100 100

Table 26: Evaluation of Promotion of Traditional Values in Community
(based on 20 questions)

        Total
  Greenland Chukotka Alaska  
somewhat dissat 3 33 3 10
neither 29 31 19 30
somewhat satis 62 23 45 48
very satisfied 6 14 33 12
  100 100 100 100

Table 27: Importance of Traditional Values
(based on 15 questions)

        Total
  Greenland Chukotka Alaska  
0-4 (low) 48 21 28 43
5-9 28 38 30 28
10-14 (high) 24 41 42 28
  100 100 100 100

Part Six: Political Affairs

Table 28: Political Knowledge, Interest
(based on three questions)

  Country     Total
  Greenland Chukotka Alaska  
1-7 (low) 12 35 23 19
8-10 30 38 33 32
11-12 31 23 29 29
13-15 (high) 26 5 15 20
  100 100 100 100

 

Table 29: Perceived Influence Over Management of Natural Resources

  Country     Total
  Greenland Chukotka Alaska  
very dissatisfied 15 41 6 19
somewhat dissatisfied 22 34 14 23
neither satisfied nor dissatisfied 37 20 28 32
somewhat satisfied 25 4 38 23
very satisfied 1 1 14 3
  100 100 100 100

Table 30: Participation in Civic Activities

  Country      
  Greenland Canada Chukotka Alaska
0 no activities 48 42 33 29
1 23 23 30 22
2 17 18 23 23
3 activities 12 16 14 25
  100 100 100 100

Part Seven: Overall Well-being

Table 31: Satisfaction with Life as a Whole

      Total
  Greenland Alaska  
very dissatisfied 0 1 0
somewhat dissatisfied 1 2 1
neither satisfied nor dissatisfied 6 7 6
somewhat satisfied 67 34 57
very satisfied 25 56 36
  100 100 100

Table 32: Satisfaction with Life as a Whole in This Community

        Total
  Greenland Canada Alaska  
not satisfied or neither 5 8 8 6
somewhat satisfied 72 42 37 57
very satisfied 22 50 55 36
  100 100 100 100

Part Eight: Important Relationships

Table 33: Thoughts of Suicide and Depression
(Does not include Canada)

  most likely depressed least likely depressed
no thoughts of suicide 77 85
yes 8 9
yes in last year 15 6
  100 100

Table 34: Depression and Satisfaction with Life as a Whole in This Community
(Does not include Chukotka)

  not satisfied or neither somewhat satisfied very satisfied
most likely depressed 10 8 4
2 21 21 14
3 44 29 31
least likely depressed 25 42 51
  100 100 100

Table 35: Satisfaction with Life as a Whole in This Community and Social Support
(Does not include Chukotka)

  Level of Social Support
  1-17 (low) 18-22 23-26 27-28 (high)
not satisfied or neither 9 8 5 3
somewhat satisfied 66 60 56 51
very satisfied 25 32 38 46
  100 100 100 100

 

Table 36: Satisfaction with Life as a Whole and Perceived Influence
Over Management of Natural Resources and the Environment
(Greenland and Alaska only)

  influence over nat. resources & environment  
  very dissatisfied somewhat dissatisfied neither satisfied nor dissatisfied somewhat satisfied very satisfied
very dissatisfied 0 1 0 0 1
somewhat dissatisfied 4 2 1 0 0
neither satisfied nor dissatisfied 7 7 8 2 3
somewhat satisfied 62 60 55 59 13
very satisfied 27 30 37 38 84
  100 100 100 100 100

Table 36: Satisfaction with Life as a Whole in This Community
and Satisfaction with Amount of Fish and Game Available Locally
(Does not include Chukotka)

  satisfaction with amt fish and game available locally recoded
  not satisfied or neither somewhat satisfied very satisfied
not satisfied or neither 12 4 5
somewhat satisfied 63 68 31
very satisfied 24 28 64
  100 100 100

Table 37: Satisfaction with Life as a Whole in This Community
and Total Personal Income in US Dollars Adjusted for Purchasing Power
(Does not include Chukotka)

  $5000 or under $5000-11500 $11500-22000 $22000-37000 above $37000
not satisfied or neither 12 7 6 5 3
somewhat satisfied 49 59 56 56 57
very satisfied 39 34 38 39 40
  100 100 100 100 100

Table 38: Household mix of employment and subsistence activities

  country  Country     Total
  1  Greenland 2  Canada 6  Chukotka 7  Alaska  
1.00  low employment and subsistence 36 37 21 39 33
2.00  low employment and high subsistence 15 27 28 26 21
3.00  high employment and low subsistence 32 17 20 13 25
4.00  high employment  and subsistence 18 19 31 22 21
  100 100 100 100 100

Table 39: Household mix of cash and subsistence by Presence of Elder in Household

    1.00  low employment and subsistence 2.00  low employment high subsistence 3.00  high employment low subsistence 4.00  high employment and subsistence
1  Greenland .00  0 60 72 93 95
  1.00  1 or more 40 28 7 5
    100 100 100 100
2  Canada .00  0 74 79 91 94
  1.00  1 or more 26 21 9 6
    100 100 100 100
6  Chukotka .00  0 76 77 83 87
  1.00  1 or more 24 23 17 13
    100 100 100 100
7  Alaska .00  0 50 76 87 90
  1.00  1 or more 50 24 13 10
    100 100 100 100

 

What Comes Next

We will be preparing Powerpoint presentations for South Africa. We will post these on the project-only website and send you an email when they are posted. We will also post draft articles when they are ready. We will ask you to review and comment on them so we can be sure we are not misinterpreting the results. Finally, we will post published articles so that we all have a record of publications.