HIV behavioral interventions for incarcerated populations in the United States: A critical review
Over 2.3 million adults were incarcerated in the United States (U.S.) at mid-year 2008, the majority of whom were male and a racial or ethnic minority (West & Sabol, 2009). African Americans and Latinos were more than six times and twice as likely, respectively, as whites to be incarcerated (West & Sabol). HIV prevalence and confirmed AIDS cases are higher among incarcerated populations than among the general U.S. population, with the highest rates observed among Latinos and African Americans and among women (Maruschak, 2008). Elevated rates of hepatitis and other STIs also have been documented among both adolescent (Kelly, Bair, Baillargeon, & Gerrman, 2000; Oh et al., 1998) and adult (Baillargeon, Black, Pulvino, & Dunn, 2000; Mertz et al., 2002) correctional populations.